The body against hunger strikeDo you know what yo-yo is? A toy. Drops - jumps, falls - jumps ... The more sharply falls - the sharper jumps. Just like your weight in the cycle "on a diet - at large." That's why American nutritionists and dubbed this phenomenon "the effect of yo-yo."
10% of weight for 6 months - doctors consider this rate of getting rid of excess kilograms relatively safe for health.
In theory, this should not be. That is, to return everything that it lost - it's still far from it. Why more? However, the "yo-yo" is not subject to formal logic. He has his own hard truth: eat little - lose weight ... That's all. Further it turns out that if you very long limit the food, the arrow of the weights freezes at a certain point (which, perhaps, is far from the limit of your dreams) and no longer moves in the right direction. This is called the "plateau effect". You should eat something over the dietary norm - weight returns. And going to your regular diet, you risk to gain more than lost.
"To date, there are no unequivocal and convincing explanations for this phenomenon from the point of view of evidence-based medicine," says Maria Ovsyannikova, MD, chief specialist of the medical department of LEOVIT Nutrio. "But the most powerful psychological and physiological reasons are known to help explain, and therefore at least sometimes overcome the" yo-yo effect. " Actually, the main and most obvious is the diet. "
Restrictions in food - stress for the body. Physiologically, the body is not aware of your goals and plans. It knows nothing about the "Kremlin diet" or, say, the Atkins system. It simply records that the hungry times have come.
Naturally, the body begins to struggle for survival. And no rational arguments can stop this process. The body tries to save energy reserves, slows down the metabolism and makes sticks: after all, he does not know how long the hunger strike will last. And if you, scrupulously believing, eat no more than 1200 kcal per day, then one thousand two hundred and first kilocalorie, accidentally caught in your stomach, will immediately go to the reserve and fat will be deposited on the hip or abdomen. That is, you start to get fat at the very moment you ate an extra liver. And when you return to a more or less familiar system of food, the weight you lose is typed in the shortest possible time. Plus 15-20% more than that.
Effects of dietsSome citizens think that it's easier to sit on a strict diet for a month, and then relax for a year or two and "eat humanly" rather than limit yourself all your life. We admire actresses who bravely overeat with julien and tiramisu at parties, and then share with the grateful public the secrets of their branded diets, supposedly allowing them to quickly return to the form. And it looks good in this case!
1200 kcal per day is the minimum necessary to maintain vital functions. That is, in order to lie on the couch, breathe, blink, chew and digest the eaten.
In dietetics, almost simultaneously with the term "yo-yo," the term "weathervane diets" also appeared, meaning just a deliberate leap "I grow thin - I grow fat - I grow thin." The meaning of the event is that you lose weight and pay close attention to his return. As soon as the increase became noticeable - again you go on a diet. In order not to be bored - to some new one. And what? Many celebrities do that! Just do not forget that they have personal nutritionists, fitness trainers and plastic surgeons ... And that the stars do not share all the secrets with the naive public.
Let's go in a logical way: what happens when you gain something, then lose weight? You stretch the skin! Each time more and more. Appear striae (they are also stretch marks), orange peel, flabbiness ... In short, the anti-esthetic effect of "yo-yo" is obvious. And this is much more serious than just skin problems. When you sit on a too rigid diet, a panicking organism empties not only fat accumulation, but also muscle mass. First you, naively, rejoice: the arrow of the scales very quickly moves to zero ...
Do you know why? Because the muscles are denser (and therefore heavier) than fat, - and their atrophy leads to greater weight loss. I saw on the beach or in the gym like thin women with ugly "stratifications" in the upper part of the hands and on the hips? They are champions of strict diets: the weight has left ... But it would be better if he did not do it! And now remember the school course of anatomy. The heart is also a muscle. It is not hard to guess, she also suffers from hunger. That's why cardiologists like to ask their pre-infarct patients about weight stability.
Fatty liver disease (ZBP), considered for a long time the lot of chronic alcoholics, in the late twentieth century received a new status. As a separate phenomenon, physicians are now investigating nonalcoholic ZFS. The essence of the disease is that the liver cells are gradually replaced by fat cells.
And what is left for them? After all, you then load yourself with an incredible amount of fats and carbohydrates, then inform your body of the onset of the hungry times and force him to save up stocks. ZBP occurs in 1-2% of people with normal weight, in 70% of obese and in 80% of people who lose and gain weight many times. Two thirds of the patients are women. With frequent fluctuations in weight, all glandular tissues suffer. Including mammary glands.
Diet - the enemy of immunity?You thought everything would be limited to stretch marks on the chest? Here and no! Fibro-cystic mastopathy, failure of the ovaries and adrenal glands and, as a result, the cessation of menstruation - often all these are the "yo-yo" derivatives. But the worst thing is a malfunction in the thymus gland, the thymus responsible for the activity of the immune system. It is she who sends killer cells that catch and destroy viruses and cancer cells in your blood.
Recent studies of the Cancer Center in Seattle gave a frightening result: those who lost weight and gain weight more than five times in life, lymphocytes are almost twice as passive as the rest! That is, their immunity is twice as weak. And their cancer risks are twice as high. And of course, let's not forget about such "banal" consequences of "yo-yo", like diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension and depression.
Beware of food addiction!Experts are not in vain against the rigid diets. "The diet should be balanced in composition and calorie content," Maria Ovsyannikova emphasizes. - Weight loss and subsequent weight retention - a long process, almost lifelong, requiring constant motivation. Therefore, it is better to plan a weight reduction plan together with a dietitian. For the correction of eating behavior, sometimes you need the help of a psychologist or a psychotherapist. "
This postulate confirms the results of a study published recently in the US: 200 patients who underwent a weight loss program were divided into two groups. The first hundred people went to a weekly psychological training on changes in eating behavior, while another hundred received an additional hour of physical exertion. A year later it turned out that in the first group no one recovered! And two thirds of the second group could not keep the achieved kilograms.
Sadly, food dependence often turns out to be akin to a drug addiction, and not everyone can cope with it independently. In the US, the problem of obesity is seriously studied not only by nutritionists, endocrinologists and psychologists, but also ... narcologists! It is assumed that many hormones that inhibit overeating, could be used for the treatment of drug addiction. Particularly intently, doctors are studying three of them: ghrelin, leptin and dopamine.
Hormones of harmony"In the course of evolution, a reliable" stop-cock "was formed in the person, preventing death from exhaustion," explains Maria Ovsyannikova. - This is the hormone of hunger ghrelin, discovered in 1999. During a shortage of food, it accumulates in the body and deprives you of the remnants of self-control when you see a cake. " It is no coincidence that a constant dieting so often leads to bulimia - unrestrained and unquenchable hunger, forcing the unfortunate to lick the remnants of food from dirty dishes.
A natural counterbalance to ghrelin is leptin, a hormone of satiation. It is he who informs the brain that all the valuable elements in the blood have already arrived and it's time to stop loading. Genetic insufficiency of leptin or insensitivity to it leads to severe forms of obesity. If a person can not stop until he eats everything he sees, do not rush to blame him for being weak. Sometimes it is a really serious pathology, which you can not overcome by yourself.
Overeating as an addictionAn innate tendency to overeating is the basis of the "yo-yo effect". About half of the obese people are "biological gluttons". If by the titanic efforts of the will they force themselves to gastronomic restrictions, then, at the end of the diet, they almost immediately break down and compensate their suffering. Naturally, all the pounds again here like here.
Reducing weight by 10% slows metabolic processes in the body by 15%.
There are also "emotional gluttons". They can keep themselves in hand, while they feel that life as a whole is a success. But they are able to eat a kilo of toffee in one sitting, if suddenly the chief yelled, the husband left, money for shoes was not enough or just sad. Then they become ashamed of their behavior ... And unpleasant feeling they seize with chips or chocolate.
Do you recognize yourself? Then you, too, can blame the whole responsibility on leptin and ghrelin ... And you can - on yourself, to get rid of extra pounds forever. The thing is this: leptin is produced by fat cells. It also reduces feelings of anxiety and helps fight depression.
So your desire to seize grief is not just psychological addiction, but also a physiological need. You need to improve your mood - that means, you need leptin. So, we need fat cells. So, we need food. And then you get a fork: on the one hand, leptin fulfills its function of the satiety hormone and loudly signals to you: "It's enough, we're fine, we're full!" You stop eating - and then leptin (only now as an antidepressant) yells: " I'm sad, I'm dying, I need reinforcements! "And you run to the fridge again. And in the neglected case - and to the sink with dirty dishes: suddenly something remained on the plate. How to break this vicious circle? In fact, it's very simple. Leptin is by no means the only hormone in your body that struggles with stress.
Much better in this regard proved endorphin and serotonin. And they (whatever they write glossy magazines for you in consolation) are not contained in chocolate and biscuits, but are produced by your body. The most active is in response to increased physical activity. And it is desirable - with concomitant oxygen saturation. In other words, to combat depression and stress, you need aerobic exercise: running, dancing, outdoor exercise.
The most amusing, it was recently proved that physical activity increases the level of leptin in the body. Thus, replacing an unscheduled piece of chocolate cake for jogging, you kill three birds with one stone: you burn fat and lose weight; increase the level of leptin and, therefore, feel full; you raise the level of endorphins - and you lose the excuse to fight depression with the help of cakes.
Only now you do not confuse anything: you do not need charging after you've eaten a half-ruble, but instead. Having established for themselves a certain diet (three- or six-time) and dietary restrictions (for example, do not eat cream cakes, chips and wieners), stick to it religiously. And if you suddenly want to refresh yourself before dinner or sweeten your life at the moment of sadness - replace this unscheduled snack with a jog or a dozen push-ups.
Eternal hungerScientists note that drug addicts, like obese people, significantly reduced the number of receptors sensitive to dopamine. Only while it is unclear what is the reason, and what is the consequence: whether drug addicts and gluttons are due to insensitivity to dopamine, or drugs and fatty foods suppress receptors.
80% of those who sat on the express diet, return all lost within two years.
Dopamine is the desire hormone. Under his influence, you begin to believe that happiness is achievable, you just need to get stuck. Dopamine makes you look for love. Have sex. Climb to Mount Everest. To defend his doctoral dissertation. Because as a result, a strong family is waiting for you. Orgasm. Victory. Glory and money. But some still in the childhood find out, that pleasure can be received, especially without straining. Straight from the fridge. The right word, why do we need dopamine when there is sugar?
People who are accustomed to enjoying food usually say that "useful can not be tasty." They are always podsalivayut and sugar. Vegetables prefer in marinated form, and fruits - in the form of candied fruits. And by all means, everyone surrenders the sauce.
Fortunately, "dopamine" gluttons more often than others can cope with their addiction, knocking out a wedge with a wedge. Very many girls notice that when they fall in love they forget about food. Women who are satisfied with their sex lives, also, as a rule, are not inclined to fullness. Wake up dopamine receptors can be and with the help of sports, and it is better to choose classes aimed at winning: competitions, team games, the conquest of the same Everest. In principle, any occupation that captivates you and promises pleasure, saves from overeating.
Slimness without dietsTo stop this svostoplyasku with loss and weight gain, understand the main thing: "weight loss" diets are dangerous because sooner or later they will end. Further you know.
Therefore, once again going to lose weight, decide for yourself that this will not be a short-term event, but a lifelong revision of all your habits.