Alexey Valentinovich Nadezhdin,
psychiatrist-narcologist, doctor of medical science, head of the department of the National Scientific Center of Narcology of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of USA
Alexander Olegovich Kibitov, Candidate of Medical Science,
Head of the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Scientific Center of Narcology, Ministry of Health and Social Development of USA
psychiatrist-narcologist, Candidate of Medical Science, leading researcher of the National Scientific Center of Narcology of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of USA
At the words "alcohol-dependent person" before the mental gaze usually unsteady walk passes barefooted marginal type in the Olympics. But it's time to consider this image as archaism: the portrait of a person who was closely connected with alcohol in the last 10-20 years has seriously changed - more and more often they are young and successful people of both sexes. Yes, they do not indulge in cologne and strong beer at dawn, but nevertheless they drink each or almost every day. And rejoice at the substitution of heavy, brutal forms of alcoholism for softer types is stupid: dependence remains an addiction, even if you order exclusively collection wines exclusively in stellar restaurants.
Alcohol vs beautyMany women reason as follows: yes, I drink regularly, but only quality drinks. I'm not late for work, there are no unhealthy signs on my face - it means that you should not worry yet. One can object to this: modern cosmetology is really capable for some time to mask traces of libations, but only for the time being. Alcohol intoxication is stronger than the most effective cream: an incorrect lifestyle is inevitable, though not instantaneously, leading to a puffiness of the face, couperose and other cosmetic defects. Plus, when drinking alcohol, it is difficult to control food behavior, so you will have to forget about the slender figure. Well, either to solve the problems with the help of surgery, the possibilities of which are far from boundless.
Will binge save stress?Regularly drinking people love the theory that in a modern metropolis the level of stress is so high that without doping it's easy not to relax and not fall asleep. However, from the point of view of physiology and skills developed in the course of evolution, life in the modern world is quite comfortable and safe. In most cases, we are not threatened with an attack by a predatory beast or hostile tribe, and we do not need to get ourselves food by heavy physical labor. Of course, in life there are psychological traumas, accidents, death of close people, sudden changes in social or economic status, but in general the surrounding world has become much calmer and friendly to man. So the need for an alcoholic antidepressant is more a reflection of the craving for a higher level of mental and physical comfort, which can be achieved by more healthy methods.
There would be an occasion to drinkIt is more likely to start drinking alcoholic beverage systematically and in the end, people who have the will of destiny turned out to be in an "alcoholic environment" have to face the addiction. By analogy with other dependencies, this process is called the "pressure of the alkaline environment". Modern research has clearly established that the earlier a teenager used alcohol, the greater the likelihood that he will eventually go along the curve of the path. On the contrary, those who first tried hot drinks after 20 years, are significantly less likely to get drunk. The cause of excessive craving for alcohol may be psychological trauma - but only serious. A broken heel or a stalled car is, of course, an unpleasant, but not a psychotraumatic situation.
Such different alcoholismThe rate of cleavage of ethyl alcohol and its main metabolite - acetaldehyde - differs significantly for different people. It is determined by the action of two enzymes (get ready!) - alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. On the ratio of the activity of these substances depends the stability or, conversely, the susceptibility of a particular person to the development of alcoholism.
Alcohol dependence in men and women is the same disease, just with some features that are related to the physiology of the sexes. A number of researchers believe that the cells of the gastric epithelium of women contain fewer enzymes that decompose alcohol, that is why alcohol is instantly and easily absorbed into the blood. It is also believed that the water content in the female body is 10% less than in the male body, so at equal doses of alcohol, the concentration of alcohol in the blood of the lady will be higher. But the popular opinion that the higher percentage of fat to muscle mass in a woman's body is guilty of severe forms of intoxication is doubtful. If we assume that the fat contained in the human body does indeed hold alcohol in itself, like a camel's hump - water,
Female body and alcoholAbout the notorious "incurability" of female alcoholism, one of the most prominent domestic specialists in this field, Professor VB Altshuler, most authoritatively spoke. He believes that the difficulties in treatment are caused not so much by another course of the disease as by the fact that women are more embarrassed by such diagnoses and, as a rule, later seek medical help. And the neglected cases of any disease are much more difficult to treat.
Attention: poor heredity!According to modern scientific data, the development of dependence on alcohol on 60-70% is due to genetics, 20% - personality characteristics and 15% - social and environmental factors. Of course, by inheritance, not alcoholism itself is transmitted, but a predisposition to it is the specific features of the biochemical systems of the brain, due to which the dependence develops rapidly in case of abuse of the exacerbation, the disease proceeds malignantly, rapidly progresses and requires active medical intervention at the earliest stages. And the presence in the family of patients with alcoholism relatives - an excuse to stay away from the bottle. By the way, modern methods allow using DNA diagnostics to identify specific changes in genes responsible for the development of alcoholism and to determine the individual level of hereditary risk. But even the high genetic risk of alcoholism is not yet a verdict. This does not mean that the disease is inevitable and can not be prevented.
Talents and AlcoholicsThe problem of many representatives of creative professions, who allegedly can not work without a glass in his hand, psychologists say confidently: alcohol doping is not a guarantee of creative success. Rather, it is a manifestation typical of any drinking person's desire to justify their own behavior. The creative comrade first manifests his talent, and only then begins to drink, but does not become a genius as a result of the earnest use of alcohol. And, by the way, nothing kills creativity and does not destroy the brain, like ethyl alcohol.
Treatment with alcohol: side effectsAlcohol can be treated. Rubbing the skin with vodka, for example, can help quickly reduce the highest temperature. The disinfecting properties of vodka and alcohol are also difficult to challenge. But the use of alcohol inside for treatment is a complex and controversial issue. Ethyl alcohol with respect to the human body has only toxic activity, and hot drinks can not help with colds, beriberi, cardiovascular diseases or radiation sickness. Some subjective improvement of the condition with alcohol intake in patients with acute respiratory viral infection is explained by banal intoxication, which for a short time masks the symptoms of a cold. But the fact that alcohol abuse has become one of the main causes of death from heart attacks and strokes is an irrefutable fact.
Drop of the use of alcoholAccording to doctors, the use of dry wine is less dangerous for human health, preferably red. Strong alcoholic beverages practically do not contain useful substances, but they have a pronounced toxic effect. And in red wine at least splash useful flavonoids, quercetin and resveratrol. It is the presence of dry wine in the diet that some researchers explain the so-called French paradox - the low level of cardiovascular and oncological diseases among the inhabitants of this country.
Even the World Health Organization could not name the minimum amount of alcohol that can be consumed without harm to health. Therefore, it is difficult to decide whether an alcoholic is a person, who drinks a little every evening, and people are different, and "little by little" are not the same for them.